Mini review on Socio Cultural Level of Analysis

Define the Sociocultural Level of Analysis

  • SCLOA is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings and thus behaviors are influences by actual, implied or imagined presence of others
  • Thus it is; The scientific study of individuals and groups in social and cultural conditions, How we think, feel and thus act in the presence of others, And thus how this presence of others affects our behavior

State the principles of the SCLA

  • There are four overarching principles of the SCLA
    • Principle 1: Humans are social animals and thus have the need to 'Belong'
    • Principle 2: Culture influences behavior
    • Principle 3: Humans have a social-self
    • Principle 4: People's views of the world are resistant to change and developed by the community and culture
Purpose of the Principles
  • These principles are the main ideas that have driven focused research on specific areas of how our environment can influence our behavior in the SCL
  • They also allow us to understanding how behavior can be caused or influenced by social factors.
State the main research methods used in psychological research
    • There are 6 main research methods used in psychology, which consists of the following:
      • Experiments
      • Case Studies
      • Observational Studies
      • Interviews
      • Surveys/Questionnaires
      • Correlational Studies
Describe ethical considerations
  • In psychology, ethics must be considered to ensure participants (humans and animals) are not harmed and that research conducted is ethically valid.
  • Ethics can be defined as moral principles and rules of conduct that guide and govern an individual or group"s behavior.
  • Researchers should always conduct research in an ethical manner and studies should always be critically evaluated for ethical issues.
  • Ethical standards made by the American Psychology Association (APA) that all research done in psychology must abide by.
  • These ethics are
        • Protection of participants: Participants should be protected from physical and mental harm and distress . This includes humiliation, stress, injury, etc. Participants should not be forced to reveal personal information.
        • Consent: Participants must be informed of the true aims and nature of research before giving consent . Sometimes it is not possible to give full information about research. Participant bias: knowing the true aims of a study may affect participants' behaviour and thus the results of a study It is considered acceptable not to give full informed consent if no harm is expected. A guardian or family member should also give consent to the study if the participants are Children under 18 years of age or adults incompetent of understanding the true nature and aims of the study.
        • Right to withdraw: Participants should be informed of their right to withdraw their participation and data at any time in the study (even at the end) without penalty.
        • Confidentiality: Data collected in a study should remain confidential and anonymous to protect participants from possible consequences that may result from their data
        • Deception: Deception should be avoided but slight deception is considered acceptable if:
          • Participant bias would result from participants knowing the true aims of the study
          • The research has potential significant contribution
          • It is unavoidable
          • The deception does not cause any distress to the participant, including upon being informed of the deception, If deception is involved, informed consent is not obtained . Any deception must be revealed at the earliest opportunity
        • Debriefing: Participants should leave the study without undue stress. Findings of the research should be made available to participants as soon as possible. Any deception must be revealed and justified
Attributions
  • One way that people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world is through attribution --> which has laid the foundations for the attribution theory (AT) proposed by Heider (1958).
  • Attributions are "the beliefs about why people behave as they do" the end result of a process in which people use available information to make inferences about the causes of a particular behavior.
  • Dispositional attributions: We explain people"s behavior in terms of factors which are specific to them as a person, such as their personality or other internal and generally unchanging characteristics, traits, feelings, moods and abilities.
        • Can be positive or negative , An example of a dispositional attribution (commonly seen as innate factors)
          • They are always late; they have been like that since they were born, etc.
  • Situational attributions: One"s behavior is assumed to be/dependent upon their current circumstances, situation or the environment that they are in.
        • An example: Blaming the weather for something that has happened