Home History Research Neuroscience Behavior Development Sensation Consciousness Learning Memory Thinking Intelligence Motivation Emotion Stress Personality Disorders Therapy Social Formatives Information

time out.png

Chapter Objectives:
After students have completed their study of this chapter, they should be able to:

  1. Give examples of differences and similarities within the human family.
  2. Describe the types of questions that interest behavior geneticists.
  3. Define chromosome, DNA, gene, and genome, and describe their relationships.
  4. Explain how identical and fraternal twins differ, and cite ways that behavior geneticists use twin studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
  5. Cite ways that behavior geneticists use adoption studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
  6. Discuss how the relative stability of our temperament illustrates the influence of heredity on development.
  7. Discuss heritability’s application to individuals and groups, and explain what we mean when we say genes are self-regulating.
  8. Give an example of a genetically influenced trait that can evoke responses in others, and give another example of an environment that can trigger gene activity.
  9. Identify the potential promise and perils of molecular genetics research.
  10. Describe the area of psychology that interests evolutionary psychologists.
  11. State the principle of natural selection, and point out some possible effects of natural selection in the development of human characteristics.
  12. Identify some gender differences in sexuality.
  13. Describe evolutionary explanations for gender differences in sexuality.
  14. Summarize the criticisms of evolutionary explanations of human behaviors, and describe the evolutionary psychologists’ responses to these criticisms.
  15. Describe some of the conditions that can affect development before birth.
  16. Describe how experience can modify the brain.
  17. Explain why we should be careful in attributing children’s successes and failures to their parents’ influence.
  18. Evaluate the importance of peer influence on development.
  19. Discuss the survival benefits of culture.
  20. Describe some ways that cultures differ.
  21. Explain why changes in the human gene pool cannot account for culture change over time.
  22. Identify some ways a primarily individualist culture differs from a primarily collectivist culture, and compare their effects on personal identity.
  23. Describe some ways that child-rearing differs in individualist and collectivist cultures.
  24. Describe some ways that humans are similar, despite their cultural differences.
  25. Identify some biological and psychological differences between males and females.
  26. Summarize the gender gap in aggression.
  27. Describe some gender differences in social power.
  28. Discuss gender differences in connectedness, or the ability to “tend and befriend.”
  29. Explain how biological sex is determined, and describe the role of sex hormones in biological development and gender differences.
  30. Discuss the relative importance of environment on the development of gender roles, and describe two theories of gender-typing.
  31. Describe the biopsychosocial approach to development.